Accent Reduction Tips

Is it a t, d or \d?

Many people don’t know whether to pronounce –ed as t, d or \d or Id.  Here are some very simple rules:

-ed endings:
Rule 1: add a /t/ sound for final voiceless sounds /k/, /p/, /f/, /§/, /t§/, /?/, /s/.
Rule 2: add a /d/ sound for final voiced sounds /g/, /b/, /v/, /d½/,/½/, //, /z/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/.
Rule 3: add an extra –ed /\d/ or /Id/ suffix for final /t/ and /d/ consonants.

-ed: pronounce this ed as a /t/ (Final voiceless sound)

brushed= brushT asked=askT
processed=procesT researched=researchT
walked=walkT                 focused=focusT
diminished=diminishT hiked=hikeT

-ed: pronounce this ed as a /d/ (Final voiced sound)

explained=explainD believed=believD
smiled=smilD            transformed=transformD
famed=famD               shaved=shavD
called=callD               travelled=travellD

-ed: pronounce this ed as a /\d/ or /Id/
wanted=wantID                appointed=appointID
anticipated=anticipatID regulated=regulatID
attended=attendID needed=needID


L2 Accent Reduction Centre
6093 West Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6M 3X2
Call 604-267-7781 l


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